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Davide Berruti, Sandro Mazzi: THE CIVIL PEACE CORPS AND THE COLLABORATION BETWEEN CIVILIAN DEFENCE AND MILITARY DEFENCE: COMPARISON OF TRAINING EXPERIENCES
euromediterranea 2003The civil peace corps born as an answer/alternative from civil society’s organisations (and also from a part of the political forces) to the intervention policies in conflicts from governments and from military structures. From the phase in which the possible interventions of civil peace corps where thought through and planned, it has been important to define the relation between them and the others parts present on the field, first of all, the armed forces. For this reason, the question of how the civil peace corps interact with the armed forces is part of the civil peace corps question. It is important to underline that, as well as civil society’s organisations engaged in peace operations have always thought about how to deal with the armed forces, the armed forces take more and more attention in recognising these other actors in the peace operations. This path, that we could define as ”approach”, takes place in an evolving international picture, sometimes easily, sometimes contradictorily.
Several United Nations documents show the need to form a staff able to act in the situation of humanitarian aid and other crisis situations, having also relational skills act to reduce the tensions (in 1995 at the UN General Assembly, the General secretary at that time, dealt in a systematic way with the issue of the contribution of the civil volunteers in the international emergencies A/50/203/Add.1/1995 - Res. A/50/19/1995 – Res. A/52/171/1997 ). It is from the publication of the Agenda for Peace (1992) that the UN take the issue of their action the conflict prevention, a task to reach with the use of civil staff trained in a proper way . Kofi Annan, General Secretary of the UN, has in the spring of 1998, confirmed this point, underlining how the failure of the UN peace keeping operations in Somalia and Rwanda, was principally referable as a missed prevention action, made not only by the armed forces, but also by the civilians.
Between the International organisations engaged in conflict resolution taking place in the last years, we have to consider the OSCE activity, that has insisted about how, using experts in civilian matters, can be useful in conflict areas. In particular, the recent Card for European Safety, approved in Istanbul in November 1999, at the article 42, provides for the institutions of first aid and co-operation expert teams, (REACT), ”…able to give assistance, according to the OSCE norms, in conflict prevention, crisis management and post conflict rebuilding”.
The European Parliament has dealt more than once with the issue of civilians involved in peace operations. In his more recent intervention, the B4-0791/98 recommendation, adopted on 2 February 1999 (”European Civil Peace Corp Recommendation”), the European Parliament, convinced that this Peace Corp could positively contribute to foreign and common safety policy, and in particular to reinforce the capacity of the European Union to avoid that the conflicts in the third states, or among the third states, degenerate into violence, recommends the Council, as to charge, ”with no lingering”, the European Commission to realise a feasibility study about the institution of that Corp (not later than 1999), as to start in case of successful result, a pilot project as first step toward the institution of the Corp. Aims of the European Civil Peace Corp (CPCE) will be the transformation of the crisis created by men (for example violent conflicts escalation prevention), and the contribute towards their progressive reduction. Any way, the tasks of the CPCE will be exclusively civilian. Concrete examples of the CPCE activities for the creation of peace, are mediation and confidence enforcement between the fighting parts, the humanitarian aid, the reintegration, the recovery and the rebuilding, the stabilisation of the economical structures, the control and the improving of the human rights situation and the possibility of the political participation, the temporary administration to facilitate the short term stability, the information and the creation of structures and programs about instruction tending to avoid the prejudices and the hostility sentiments, and information campaigns for the population about the on going activities for peace.
The CPCE will consist of two parts: a full time qualified team that will have management tasks and will assure the continuity (a secretariat whit administration, management, assumption, preparation, intervention, end of mission report and link tasks); a specialised team to be destined to the missions (including long experienced experts or not experienced personnel, in the field work, either way perfectly trained), for specific missions, part time employed, or with short term contract as operator in the field (including the volunteer conscious objectors or those not paid).
The recruitment will be based on a proportional participation among the European Union member states. Beyond the mentioned Organisations some other (OUA, WHO, ILO, FAO etc), during the last years referred clearly to the constitution of civil peace corps to operate in conflict areas and beside the armed forces, and if the need arose, a real professional figure that could be used in such cases should be created.
Since the end of the cold war, subject of peace building and conflict prevention was dealt with not only internationally, but also by single states. In this optic, one should consider position assumed by Canada, the first state that started a program of peace building and offered assistance to all those activities that had as objectives peace reinforcement. One of the concrete actions implemented was the creation of a group experts in the field of human rights and peace building that were advising both government and non governmental organisations. In Europe, Great Britain since 1996 regards as essential in aid programs conflict prevention undertaken by a civil corp. It’s important to consider that the British Government sees as important the possibility of use of civil corps as mediators in alternative diplomatic channels especially in the eventual impasse of peace negotiations. That way of using peace mediators was suggested also by Sweden, which government formally believes in a greater collaboration between military and civil forces that is a necessary base for the new concept of defence and security. Great steps in this direction have also been made in Norway and especially in Holland.
Even though there have been many recommendations by different international organisations and other states, Italian local administrations only recently and on off and on bases programs training that have as objective creation of a new professional figure f international peace mediator. Some of the past experiences that had as objective responds to an urgent need were experiences of sending volunteers in war zones (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosove etc). The situation is becoming tragical if one considers the rising need of civil peace keeping, peace building and conflict prevention experts by all organisations involved in the war zones.
1. THE COLLABORATION CIVIL/MILITAR IN PEACE KEEPING OPERATIONS SEEN BY CIVILIANS
The 80’s and 90’s pacifism that between the end of the cold war and beginning of the world disorder, produced some fundamental anticipations in the current way of thinking, without whose, the develop of the peace policies wouldn’t have been the same. One of this is the ”vision” of the Civil Peace Corps, by Alexander Langer. The whole movement, catholic and laic, seemed to be oriented towards the armies elimination, the arsenals elimination, the refusal of war; all this issues were rooted in a deep anti-military sentiment. The word antimilitarism is almost abandoned at the end of the 90’s, replaced by another terminology, result of a way of acting and a political praxis, more and more positive and constructive oriented. Nowadays, it is preferable to use the expression ”civil management, either from those oriented towards ”alternatives” to military, as from those oriented towards a ”collaboration” with the military. Either way, the trend is to orient the question towards the conquer of political or public recognition, instead that keeping ”fighting” for a world without weapons and armies. This evolution seems to be normal if we look the general contest in which is collocated. With the fall of the Berlin wall, a felling of safety from the ran to weapons took place (only now we understand the big naive mistake), not any more threatened from mass destructive weapons (term more than ever topical today), almost sure the history will have bring those values of peace and nonviolence, for those has been fought. But, it became slowly evident that conflicts, have increased instead of decrease, that other massacres have been done, that the threaten of the ran to the weapons is reinforced, even in the space. A situation like this should have relaunched a political position of clear-cut to the military, to the armies, to the weapons; but we assisted to a gradual recognition and exploitation of the first two of those above mentioned, and, in a way, also of the war industry, by almost the whole political world. This long preface, it is useful to draw the contest where to insert the debate internal to the pacifist world, in its various components: nonviolent, catholic, laic, no-global, about the cooperation with the military.
The believe that a cooperation with the military is not only useful, but necessary, is growing. We believe that the reasons for this convinction are not the loose of critical sense, or a sort of an ethical abdication. Rather, we think that it is referable to a greater correspondence to reality and to a resulting fighting strategy. In a few words, the organisations from the civil society try to gain space and credibility, by the field work, even if this means do it ”with” the military, instead of doing their own activities in a full isolation and, often but not always, with self references. This change of strategy has been facilitate also form the evolution of the relations between pacifist movement and development cooperation movement: this two world are collaborating more than ever, up to the point that it seems impossible to speak about cooperation without talking about peace, as it seems impossible for the pacifists organisations to remain in their own political or idealistic fights without deal with the conflicts economical reasons and the development and welfare, there were the conflicts take place. This convergence gave a lot of concreteness to the pacifist and nonviolent world, and moreover had the important result that the organisations should learn from the fieldwork and not from home. So, the civilians learned that a collaboration between civilian and military it’s not only useful for the military (to better ”control”, as the detractors say), but it’s useful also for the civilian, to operate in safety condition. The scenarios could be very different one from another: electoral monitoring, where the largest part of the international actors are unarmed, to the up to down bombing from, where the civilian are cut of if not materially sacrified from the intelligence that choose a manu militari conflict resolution. Of course, the believe in this opposite models it’s not the same.
We are in front of a situation that the nonviolent defence researchers use to define of ”transarmament”: the presence at the same time, of the military instrument and the nonviolence one, in a intermediate phase toward the complete disarmament. The debate is about the opportunity to leave the situation like this or to keep going towards the ideal of the popular nonviolent defence as the only one adopted by peoples. This debate is very well summerised, for example, in the introduction of the italian edition of the Jean-Marie Muller book ”To win the war”, written by Tonino Drago, one of the peace researchers more important in Italy and also one of the more conservatives .
Military and civilians positions are clearly in opposition on the political or conceptual level, most of all in a theme as the homeland defence preparation, when to intervene in a conflict means to be a third part, where it is easier to see the each other usefulness, behind a common task, even if differences on the approach and of point of view remain.
2. THE CIVIL/MILITARY COOPERATION IN THE OPERATIONS OF PEACE KEEPING SEEN BY MILITARY
By the end of the Cold War the role of the Armed Forces has increased and became more complex, instead of reducing and exhausting itself. In fact, before 1989 security was mainly military and oriented towards a precise menace, nowadays it has been transformed in a series of multi-directional risks: type of intervention, quality of intervention, operation theatre, were concepts unknown until the deployment; the military point of view of security is now connected with politics, economics, psychology, solidarity and administrative one. For these reasons the system has became more complex. If we add to the parameters of complexity, intrinsic to the operations, ones from the multinationality of military contingents and other social civil components institutional and NGO’s, management and operation problems become more complex. It means narrow cooperation among all authorities participating to the intervention that is always not only peace keeping or only humanitarian, but in the mean time both things. Soldiers trained to deal with against typical war scenarios but mainly reconduceable to military parameters have found themselves in the last few years in a situation were they have been expected to deal with situations were behind the typical warrior role they had to be also peace keepers and police forces protecting stability of the international law and their action is not only legitimate because of defence of international law. But also because of defence of the interests of the entire international community and in particular the ones that were suffering and under unjust treatments. The defence of the homeland is enlarged to include protection of rights to live of people and nations and the right to solidarity towards innocent victims of unjust treatments.
From the military point of view Moskos’s statement that: ”Peace keeping is not a profession for the soldiers, but only they are able to do it” is confirmed by the things the we witness in the last three years. Armed Forces receive atypical missions that only them can effectively undertake, due to their structure, organisation, and their capability of facing emergencies of any type. Inevitably the culture of military organisation is enriching itself this way: peace keeping asks military forces new skills and new competencies. Traditional schemes of behaviour and action (discipline, cameradery and connection with tradition) are not the only values and skills necessary for the new types of mission.
Personal contact with local population, fighting factions, soldiers of the other contingents, numerous members of different voluntary organisations ask from new soldier an availability to dialogue open minded and capability of limited use of violence, because soldier became defenders of solidarity and cohabitation. The complexity of this kind of operations requires the development and the consolidation of new behaviour models and a new professional identity for all the leading parts. For these reasons it is necessary to verify how these actors (civilian and military) react to new input and environment and give a go to a process analysis of the things that could be done together and the way that could be done from an element certainly shared by the all national components: Italian peace keeping vocation.
What are the reasons for pronounced Italian peace keeping vocation? Generically, it is based on Italian exceptionally widespread culture of solidarity; more than 5 million Italians of all ages and gender and social condition are involved as volunteers. About Italian Armed Forces the new strategic situations made conditions for deployment in many operations, starting from Lebanon (1983), nowadays they are deployed with a leading role in Bosnia, Albania, Montenegro, F.Y.R.O.M., Kosove, Afghanistan; this new trend forced the military Head Quarters to make a radical change in the training systems of all the personnel (Academies; N.C.O. Schools; Troops training) to adapt to necessities of new militarism. The basic culture enriched by a humanistic component (based on sociology, anthropology, and psychology) from an economic, politic, and internationalist component and from a linguistic component partially financed by European Union funds.
In this new operational context, work many civil organisation that represent a fundamental instrument to carry out development cooperation projects in the Countries that are living the moments of great crisis; it’s natural that military forces that have known and appreciated these organisations are organising systems and procedures for coordination of the interventions to make them more efficient respecting each other tasks. It’s important to remember that NGO activities (guaranteed by Art. 18 of the Italian Constitution) are regulated by L. February 26th 49/1987 and L. August 11th 288/1991 and their presence in different operation scenarios is legitimate.
We should now examine the instruments that are used by our armed forces for the civil/military cooperation in the national environment and also with regard to a Nato ambit; it’s important to emphasise that the whole CIMIC organisation is under a continuous revision, based on the lessons learned from PSOs recently done and from those currently in action.
2.1. GENERALITIES ABOUT THE INTERVENTION OF NGOS IN PSOS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH MILITARY CONTINGENT.
Attitudes allowed by Ministry for Foreign Affairs and guaranteed from L. 49 represent operations models of NGOs in various areas of cooperation and, particularly in PSOs. In so called humanitarian operations it’s possible to find some big currents of NGO’s employ not necessarily disjoined. These areas can be resumed as:
- classical NGO’s of voluntary service;
- NGOs which implement cooperation projects in brief and medium term, or in situations of emergency, by sending personnel differently qualified.
- NGO oriented towards the technical –economical support of partners of PVS, co-financing the implementation of micro-projects managed by local people, without sending volunteers.
- NGOs specialized in studies, researches and training of Italian personnel or coming from PVS.
There are NGOs which operate principally in Italy through the implementation of activities of information and education, mainly based on themes of development and international cooperation. These activities are made for schools or other segments of population. Recent Humanitarian operations highlighted the consciousness, from the humanitarian agencies, of the necessity to adapt projects to local conditions, which are often neglected from the worldwide cooperation. Big projects when they have as purpose to affect on the development of a Country on a macro-economic level (by massive transfer of technology, realization of infrastructure and the construction of industrial plants) find rising and sometimes insuperable problems because of the inadequate attention to social-cultural background as well as economical aspects. For these reasons, NGOs are trying to become solid part in negotiations between donor States and International Cooperation Organisations; their presence in the crisis areas during the most delicate phases of the conflicts and in the following period, make them able to do projects strictly connected to the local situation and to obtain concrete and maintainable achievement as a response to necessities of population, using a limited amount of resources. The process of afterthought of development strategies and actuation forms of cooperation, started at the end of the 80’s from the main donor Countries and from International Organisations, put the accent on the methods objectives and values that are, from the beginning, undisputed origin of NGOs.
3. TRAINING BY CIVILIANS
Law n. 64 of March 6th 2001 forms voluntary civil service; it explicitly a continuation of the law 230 form 1998 that is important because not only makes rules for the substitutive civil service and gives a right to experiment different civilian nonviolent defence forms and provides for sending objectors in peace missions abroad. This right, already confirmed by articles 11 and 52 of the Italian constitution is now again reaffirmed in the new law. If one side the new law reaffirms and opens new scenarios for the implementation of the principle of the non armed defence of homeland (it is a new and important passage if you have a regard on the law from 1972 that confirmed the obligations to do the civil service once expressed conscientious objection, and on the other side leaves unexplained some aspects concerning preparation of the new civil service operators (named ”Servizio civile nazionale o volontario”). It’s important of underline that change generated with introduction of voluntary civil service determines a selection and a change in the civil operators (one should only consider that today the great majority of volunteers are female). Nowadays, individuals that choose voluntary civil service have different motivations and aspirations opposed to those that has majority of the ”old” conscientious objectors. During the training also this aspects should be taken under consideration and civil service volunteers should be given a preparation closer to a professional one, especially knowing that that kind of preparation and experience could give new occupational possibilities. The organizations having an arrangement with National Civil Service Office are organising themselves in this direction .
Generally, in the last two years we have witnessed, in Italy obviously, an increasing number of training offers, with special regard on constructive conflict management and peaceful conflict resolution: different organizations, (governative and non-) and also local administration and universities are involved. This new sensibility is product of spreading of confidence in constructive conflict and international crisis management. The importance of the civilian assistance in the resolution of international conflicts is largely and in different ambient recognised. That sensibility meets the greater dignity given to civil service with the above mentioned 64/2001 law. It’s probably the reason why the initiatives about training civilians for the crisis situations is increasing: civil society is organized better than ever and is in constant contact with universities, giving new types of programs and university degrees. Local administrations are starting to finance projects for the creation of a new professional figures (international mediators and peace promoters); sometimes, even military institutions meet non governmental world and try to integrate their traditional way of operating with those unorthodox civilian ones (the care of psychological and relational aspects of life). As said in the final documents of the Forum ”Towards civil peace corps” (”Verso i corpi civili di pace”), held in Bologna June 6-8th 2003: it’s important that these [new lectures and universities degrees and trainings financed by civil administrations] became focal point for the training of the voluntaries of the national civil service today in the phase of programming. This could guarantee a greater uniformity in the preparation and meeting points with Italian laws that project forms of non armed defence and nonviolent participation in the peace operations abroad”. Let us review some of the most important experiences of that kind of work.
The training of the Peace Civil Corps for the international emergencies: a course by CDSC
By a short description of the tasks, methodologies and contents of training organized by Civilian Defence Studies Centre (Centro Studi Difesa Civile – CSDC) from now CDSC, the training principal co-ordinates of a training for the sending of civilians in conflict areas, are point out. The general task of this kind of training are the acquisition from the participants of the theoretical concepts, of the relational and practical skills necessary to operate in conflict situations before or after a war event. The peace operators, properly trained, will act in humanitarian aid, development cooperation and solidarity programmes in favour of countries in high conflicts situations, either in Italy, by the planning, the coordination and the monitoring of the interventions impact on conflicts, than abroad, in the implementing of the projects.
From the CDSC point of view of civil intervention, the training consists of two essential levels: one is those of contents and of the articulation of forms; the other is the one of the process and the training method. From an innovative psychological point of view, it is above all this last point to be exploited. The training process will not only consist in the classical one, based on frontal lessons from the desk, but it will be widely integrated with practical exercises due to facilitate the confidence team building, regarding the humanist psychology experiences, and to complete the development of the relational comportamental skills, and the necessary self control for this kind of intervention included.
The training intervention will be structured in different actions that will match the training in his strict sense. In fact, the training provides for: a stage at NGO’s and governmental institutions that operates on the international dimension; a project work that, by a practical application of the knowledge/skills, got in the lecture room and on the stage, will permit the acquisition of technical/operational skills; a communication level, necessary to give a proper visibility for a ”new job”, as the one of peace operator; this level will also provide for a final period of train on the labour market, after the course. The CDSC training intervention also provide for the following specific tasks:
- The orienteering in the specific contest where the future mediators shall operate: either about international Organizations and their rules, than on the dynamics produced on conflicts and local situations where the third sector organizations operate;
- Put in contact the participants with docents coming from different ambient, where they revel the need of skills in peace processes: ONG manager, universty teachers in internationalist themes, trainers coming from the nonviolence word, officers by the armed forces involved in international mission etc;
- Give the useful skills to cover positive management and non conflicts roles in the processes;
- Develop, by interactive laboratory, the relational skills to intervene in concrete projects, from time to time defined constructively managing the human relations in tension and difficulties situations;
- Give to the participants, by a project work made during the whole course, the conceptual skills to build initiatives by their own, individual or co-operative, in the sector.
The complexity of conflict situations need an holistic approach to the conflict management: in relation to different conflict situations, different skills and profession will be necessary. For these reasons, the training will deal the whole range of skills for positive and nonviolent conflict management, in the way to reach the heart, the head a nd the body.
For these considerations, the interdisciplinar optic gets a relevant importance: these approach will be necessary to exploit the synergies between prevention and peace building processes and the humanitarian action; between the development cooperation and the cooperation between military experts and civilian experts. Further more, as many of the contents dealt during the course are co-related, fixing guiding thematic lines will be necessary (gender questions, conflicts analysis etc) that will go through the whole course and that shall give a useful track to deal with those themes often relegated question in their own theoretical areas. The multidimensional aspect and the complexity of many of the questions dealt suggest to set the learning process regarding well defined didactic units.
In the end, even if the scheme here presented has been realised for a basic course, it will be necessary to prepare a specialisation course, in which deal with the specific contest where operate in, to examine closely the knowledge of the local realties and cultures, of the international institutions being there, about the peace mission operative organization and structure, or to widen one’s knowledge of necessary skills. Hereby the titles of the principal forms deal in the basic course:
a. Theoretical knowledge
· International system and conflicts. Analysis of the principle crisis
· Introduction to the International Organizations and to principle pacific conflicts management skills
· Theories of conflicts and peace building
· International humanitarian right and human rights: the principle human kind international protection instruments
· The military peace keeping
· The NGO’s role in the peace process: how the co-operation for development engrave on conflicts
· Popular diplomacy and interposition
b. Transversal skills: relational skills and communication skills
· Communication and strategical problem solving
· nonviolent conflict management
· Emotions management in stress situations
· Negotiation and mediation techniques and methods
· Group building – Techniques and methods to facilitate the group decisional processes
c. Technical-operational skills
· Project cycle management
· Action and nonviolent interposition techniques
· Human rights observation and promotion skills
· Practical exercises (ex: group dynamics, role playing)
· Investigation, interview, testimonies raising, inquiry and journalistic communication techniques
The university degrees
Since a few years is instituted the 35 university degree class named ”Social sciences for cooperation, development and peace”. It is an important signal coming from university world that, in this way, is trying to give himself, specialisation instruments on the peace studies sector. The skills and knowledge the these university degrees are trying to give are traversal and are integrating history, law and economy sciences with the social ones. Depending on local heritage particular care is given to the psychological geopolitical economic and historic aspects . In Florence the objective of university studies that links different universities in the university degree ”Peace Operators” is to form conflict mediators in different aspect of life (school, work, towns, local and other organizations), peace cooperation operators (in intergovernative, governative and non-governative organizations). It’s of particular interest the possibility of professions that could be undertaken by the university graduates of Florence with regard to new founded civil peace corps for the nonviolent intervention in conflicts situations .
In Pisa few years ago interfaculty university degree ”Peace sciences” was instituted. Mediation and peace prospects in general are main tasks; international cooperation (several roles requested for the international cooperation project managed by notional, international or sovranational organizations, and from NGO’s); pacific conflict solution (figures that should operate in national and international organizations giving assistance to nonviolent actions for the solution of controversies and the conflicts transformation and developments in the phases that follow armed conflicts); third sector is training and education for nonviolent and peaceful behaviour. Among the lectures founded in these courses of particular interest are: sociology of conflict and theory of conflicts, evolution of sciences between war and peace, conciliation and conflicts resolution, theory and practice of nonviolence, strategies of nonviolent civil defence .
Civil society nongovernative organizations and associations experiences
The number of the trainings that are implemented by the organizations that intervene in the field in transferring learned competencies and forming new peacekeepers is always increasing (one should remember, for example, Peace Brigades International – PBI, Association for the Peace, FOCSIV – Volunteering in world – Federation of Christian organizations, Alexander Langer Foundation, Formin’ International forming courses trainings) non to mention all the other different initiatives that you con find periodical information on the following internet web sites: www.unimondo.org and www.peacelink.it.
International University of Peoples’ Institutions for peace – IUPIP
An important experience is given by the International University of Peoples Institutions for Peace – IUPIP, established in l993 in Rovereto (Italia), that provides a place for teaching and training people active in NGOs and working for the promotion of human rights and peace. IUPIP is oriented to NGOs and civil society activities. The primary goals of IUPIP are: to promote a global culture of peace in the spirit of UNESCO; to contribute to the development of a world order based on the implementation of human rights; to spread the idea of nonviolence; to train and to enhance the abilities and skills for people's diplomacy and the peaceful conduct of conflicts. Training activities of IUPIP are: a biennial course on human rights and conflict transformation for Israeli and Palestinian Law students (begun in 1998); an annual course for Italian civil service trainers for conscientious objectors (begun in 1994); various courses on people’s diplomacy, human rights implementation, international co-operation, economy and intercultural education, for local teachers, labour union groups and grassroots activists (initiated in January 1997) .
The Peace Center Burg Schlaining
Frequently lectures give knowledge needed by the International Organizations . The Peace Center Burg Schlaining provides to organize some trainings for future OSCE operators. The Peace Centre Burg Schlaining consists of the Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution (ASPR) and the European University Centre for Peace Studies (EPU). The ASPR aims to contribute to the promotion of peace and peaceful conflict resolution and to the dissemination of practical ideas for peace, including its developmental and environment aspects. In 1996 the ASPR became the first organization which was contracted by the World Bank to plan and conduct a joint Training Program for Project Preparation, Implementation and Conflict Management for Bosnia and Herzegovina several times a year. In particular, the Mission Preparation Training for the OSCE – Basic Course contributes not only to give skills in conflict management and intervention in crisis areas, but in particular towards developing the capability of the participating States and the OSCE to set up Rapid Expert Assistance and Co-operation Teams (REACT) which will be at the disposal of the OSCE to provide assistance, in accordance with OSCE norms in conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. The content and the methodology of this training is based on the long standing experience of the Austrian Study Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution (ASPR) with its ”International Civilian Peacekeeping and Peace-building Training Programme” (IPT) and the joint initiative with its three partners (the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin, the Constitutional and Legal Policy Institute, in Budapest, affiliated with the Central European University and the Diplomatic Academy Vienna) to establish an ”OSCE Academy” based on the annual ”Summer Academy on OSCE”. The training is also based on the first edition of the ”Training Standards for Preparation of OSCE Mission Staff”, which establishes guidelines for the design of fieldwork capacity building courses for future members of Conflict Management and Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Operations in the OSCE area, developed by the React Task Force in co-operation with the Office of the Co-ordinator for Training and Capacity-Building in June 2000. By using these standards, the training will also function as a pilot programme providing an opportunity to test and improve the standards and the programme for further courses. OSCE participation in the course will include providing lecturers and trainers as well as seconding active or future members of OSCE field missions as participants. The training aims at a trans-national, trans-professional and trans-organizational perspective. Faculty is drawn from an international group of resource persons familiar with OSCE mission activities in the realm of conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation.
CEIDA Master degree in humanitarian law, peace building and constructive conflict management
This master is created from the need to reorganise strategies and characteristics of the military interventions, ever more oriented towards defence of democracy and peace. Its tasks are preparing different aspects of peace culture and war transformation and acquisition of techniques and strategies of peace building and peace keeping. The necessity to develop new instruments of intervention in preventing management and a resolution of conflict on the international level has given a fast development of new professional figures of civil and military operators in international missions and organizations (particularly UN and OCSE), and also in NGO’s. Master aims to a military administration personnel, activated in the implementation of international cooperation and diplomacy and in active missions within armed conflicts.
4. TRAINING BY MILITARIES
From a point of view not more based on war but on peace maintenance, European Armies need a redefinition of their role as well as a reorganisation in their operation terms. As many other Countries, Italy found itself in the situation to adequate to this restructure. Despite different positions, actually Italy decided to suspend the call-up and to create a professional Army. Causes which generated this change, besides the changed International politic scenery, can be resumed:
- The refuse, from young people coming from some social classes, especially the richest, to the military way of life and the possibility to postpone or avoid the call-up. This reason, besides to configure as a social injustice, caused a cultural impoverishment of Armed Forces.
- A High percentage of young people who decided to make the civil service through the conscious objection. Nowadays applications for social service are about 100.000 with 65.000 places available. For 35.000 people there is the opportunity to avoid any social duty as well as military.
- Because of the drop of birth rate in these years the number of call-up soldiers is insufficient. The social factor is the main reason why the military service is not felt as a duty from many young people. As a consequence, new social policies must consider this trend. The retraining system of Armed Forces prefers quality instead of quantity. In fact, on one side we find a reduction of manpower, on the other a particular attention to the cultural aspects, so that the new model of defence provides a restructure and an improvement of military life quality, giving a curriculum with computer courses, English language, job prospects, and scientific as well as humanistic subject. These courses are made with EU social fund, which gives a professional certificate recognized all over Europe.
This new social-strategic trend of Armed Forces presents not only the introduction of Army based on volunteers, but also an opening to women and hierarchic reorganization, which provides a new category of N.C.O. New social subjects of Armed Forces are now reorganized with volunteers, women, new N.C.O. In past years the N.C.O. was mainly a technician, often an engineer. In recent years the N.C.O. acquired humanistic knowledge by the introduction of strategic science graduate course equipollent to a political science one, with a particular attention to subjects with which must cooperate. In Italy the introduction of women in Armed Forces is recent. In other countries women operates only in particular ambit (Ex. In Germany they are deployed in Transmission, Logistic Support, and Administrative), in Italy women can recover any task, the combat one too; also the training is the same. Moreover is working a control commission of the Ministry of to avoid irregularities in this sense.
The purpose of the reorganization of the Italian Defence is the acquisition of a new operation capability is: to defend interests of Italy, to protect Euro-Atlantic an EU interests and to prevent international crisis, to keep safe the Republican Institutions and the social activities and succour in case of nationals as well as internationals calamities. For what it may concern vital interests of Italy we refers to the integrity of national boundaries, to the security of citizens living in a foreign Country and to the safety of sovereign areas (embassies) and the communication routes. This concept of National defence is connected to a concept of ”integrated defence” which necessarily must be related to NATO and EU. As a consequence, we can affirm that a world wide peace represent the main interest of Italy. Related to what is said above, is rising a new trend to intend the defence, the peace keeping, determined as mediation for the resolution of international crisis and the maintenance of international relationship. Nowadays, the fear of an enemy from whom you must defend has fallen down and we talk more often to manage violence using force and holding an ethic position.
The COCIM is continuously developing because of activities in training field as well as instruction, made by Armed Forces to capitalize experiences and to attempt to create a true culture of CIMIC. Now we are going to show the training courses which witness an activity of instruction devised in a wide range which concern the training of Officer, N.C.O.s and soldiers to transform continuously lessons given by experience in organizing learning. We stress the importance, in all courses, about the introduction of lessons which concern the Humanitarian Organizations in PSOs.
Annualy the Defence Headquarter, by the 3° regiment-Social Defence Military Centre organizes a COCIM course for militaries and representative of some Ministry of local authorities and IO/NGO. This course not only furnish a good learning on this subject, but also consents, by the daily comparison and discussion about what is taught during lessons, to create that fundamental mutual knowledge (between military and social parts), which at the moment of the emergency will permit to realize the necessary cooperation and to avoid prejudices. The main purpose of the course is to give elements of specific knowledge to upgrade Officers as well as Managers about the Civilian Defence and cooperation between civil and military organizations in the social planning of emergencies (both in NATO and national environment). This course is attended by officers (Major, Lt. Col., Col.) Ministry Managers, Authorities an Companies such as ENAS ENAC ENEL FS WIND TELECOM. The course is open also to foreign officers coming both from countries of PtP and from Countries with which Italy signed bilateral agreements about COCIM. Among subjects, taught by eminent representatives in this field, we would stress the importance of the analysis of laws ruling COCIM, the social planning of emergencies in NATO ambit, the case study connected with visits and meetings.
The Army War School organizes, annualy, a G5 Course for young officers assigned to recover the task of CIMIC officer. The course managed by the chair of CIMIC of the Agency Area analysis of the Conflict study department of the war school, has the purpose to direct Officers in the acquisition of technical and professional knowledge necessary for their deployment in G5 branch in a Command to the level of Regiment, Headquarter of GTJ in PSOs, in national and international ambit. Moreover, this course gives stimuli and instruments to increase the professional and military learning and to enlarge the capability of solving technical and operative problems of the own level by reasonable application of work method. In the future S5/G5 course will be taught in the Headquarter course. We’d like to mention the introduction, in the learning process of Officers, N.C.O. and Volunteers, of Basic Courses for PSOs instructor, made for Company Commanders, N.C.O. platoon commander, Volunteers Squad Commander, Beholder (Watcher), Controllers, liaison officer and troopers. These courses are attended at the C.R.O of Cesano di Roma; in the learning program are taught main instruments of CIMIC, Humanitarian law and relationship with NGOs. The School of Engineers at Roma-Cecchignola, organizes informative sessions about the role of the Corp of Engineers in the CIMIC in war and PSOs towards Engineers Officers; this Corp is often involved in CIMIC activities. The training of the personnel assigned to CIMIC cells cannot be only based on the attendance of COCIM/CIMIC courses though attending courses represent the institutional way to operate in a CIMIC cell. Particularly, the evolving characteristic of this problem suggest deepening the theoretical-practical learning with the attendance to national or international courses. The approach with the audience and international experts guarantee an exchange of knowledge which if capitalized by Armed Forces can make an important development of the subject.
The Swedish Defence Wargaming Centre and the Viking Exercises
The Swedish Defence Wargaming Centre (SDWC) is an independent organisation within the Swedish Armed Forces, which together with the Joint Forces Staff is included in the Joint Forces Command. The task for SDWC is to support the Swedish Total Defence in its C3 exercise activities. SDWC also support the Joint Forces Commands exercise activities. In addition to this, SDWC is taking part in the development of computer simulated planning methodology as well as directing experimental exercises within the frames for control of development requirements for C2 systems . The Commanding Officer of the Swedish Defence Wargaming Centre (SDWC) has been designated Project Manager Exercise VIKING 03. Exercise VIKING (99, 01, 03) is computer-simulated training, exercising military and civilian authorities together. The main goal of VIKING is to exercise civil-military co-operation in a fictitious civil war, where the mission is to create security and begin reconstruction in a crisis area, together. The participants in the exercise come from approximately 20 nations, and consist on the civilian side of, amongst others, the Red Cross, Save the Children, the Swedish national police force, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Swedish national power grid, and the Swedish National Board of Emergency .
Training as a product of collaboration between armed force and universities
Master in peace keeping and security studies
In the contest of evolution of the training for Officers, it’s important to highlight the ”Master in peace keeping and security studies” organized by the Inspectorate for the training and specialization of the Army in co-operation with ”Università degli Studi Roma 3” and open to civilians. This Master has been created to answer to a double necessity: on one side the availability of expertise personnel to employ in the specific branch, related to international engagement of the Armed Force. On the other side, to learn the capability of facing the problems of coordination and communication between Military personnel and IO managers in crisis areas. The program of the master in peace keeping contains a case study based on previous operations (Bosnia, Somalia, Mozambique etc.) and modalities of approach to civil agencies which operate in humanitarian aids. The purpose of this course is to give a specific training to Armed Forces personnel which is necessary to operate successfully in peace maintenance operations as well as develop the security culture, essential background of peacekeeper. This master is made in cooperation with SSAI, Intersos-MAU, Movimondo, CEAS, IAPTN, with the patronate of UN, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Equal Opportunities.
Mediterranean policies and security Master
In this master, organized by Army in cooperation with ”Università degli Studi di Cassino” are analyzed, in the part of the course dedicated to the subject of international politics characteristics of IO and NGO to demonstrate the new sensibility of Armed Forces towards NGOs and international organizations.
Human rights and Conflicts management Master
Purpose of this master is to train professionals to participate to programs and interventions promoted by national, regional, international organizations, to protect and promote human rights in conflicts, potential conflicts, and post-conflict situations. In the Master’s Program particular attention is given to practical-operative knowledge and to an adequate consciousness of the methodological and normative background in human rights and conflicts management. This Master has a multi-disciplinary characteristic. It is interesting because it treats the subject of social as well as military peace keeping.
Master's degree in peacekeeping management
The faculty of political Sciences of the University of Turin, following the experience gained from the Post-Graduate Course in Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Interventions held in 2000 and 2001, is now providing a Master in Peacekeeping Management. The key objectives of the Master are to provide education and skills that will enable persons, with different academic backgrounds and professional abilities, to manage: complex emergency situations; conflict resolution and institution building. Particular attention is devoted to co-operation among civilian institutions and military bodies, thus providing a unique training for those involved in operational field activities. The teaching staff, is chosen among academics, diplomats, officials of international organizations, police and armed forces, and NGOs activists. The Master's also enjoys the cooperation of various NGOs as well as of: the Italian Red Cross; the Armed Forces (Carabinieri, Guardia di Finanza); the United Nations (ILO, UN Staff College, UNICRI, UNDP); the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the OSCE. The Master's is intended for students holding a first University degree and welcomes each year a maximum of 25 people plus 5 staff members of the Armed Forces .
In the perspective to pursue the concept of ”permanent training” of Staff of Armed Forces, the Inspectorate for the training and specialization of the Army organizes also in collaboration with the informatics and systemistic department of the ”Università degli Studi di Roma- La Sapienza” an Advanced Course in Logistic support management. The purpose of this Master is to obtain expertise personnel to deploy in the branch of Logistic support connected with international engagements of the Armed Forces, and to acquire the capability of solving problems of the coordination and communication between military and civil personnel. This training seems necessary to operate, plan, program and manage a complex system as logistic support. The logistic support refers particularly to the supply chain and to supply maintenance as well as the quality control in a strategic-operational level, to a different conflict level in operations and/or Humanitarian intervention and in case of calamities. In the interfaculty course in Organizational and Management Science at the ”Università Della Tuscia-Viterbo”, N.C.O.s of the Army acquire basic knowledge about IO and NGO. In the learning programs are scheduled stages at social agencies.
We want to mention the initiative made by Ministry of Defence in cooperation with ”Università di Roma-La Sapienza” towards some university from Balkan Countries. Since 1997 had been done many activities in Sarajevo with the participation of University of Bosnia Herzegovina and other nations. The cooperation between the Defence HQ and La Sapienza moved to many cultural initiatives with universities of Sarajevo, Mostar, and Belgrade. In 2001 there was a meeting among rectors of the most important universities of Former Yugoslavia Countries under the supervision of La Sapienza. Purpose of this Master is to qualify the Serbia-Montenegro and Bosnia Herzegovina young people in a European perspective. The Defence HQ will give qualified teachers in its own competence subjects (Crisis Management and CIMIC) and logistic support. ONU and MAE will finance the Course.
Further study opportunities
There are many other courses for civil operators. These courses give important knowledge about typical problems of crisis areas and post-war phases. They give also the possibility to compare different cultures and experiences, working methods, competence and needs, and knowledge directed between civil operators and military personnel that may contribute to create presuppositions which in the field increase the cohabitation and a synergy of efforts between all parties that intervene, making cooperation between NGO and Armed Forces, more natural and immediate. It is interesting to mention that many NGO felt the necessity to develop courses to give to their members a deeper and specific knowledge. Examples of this trend are courses organized by NGO Movimondo. This NGO develops in Italy many information and training activities about emergencies and created in Rome a Human rights unit and training course for operators involved in human rights defence and prevention of conflicts and emergency assistance. On the baseof these experiences in training field, Movimondo recently produced a document which collects the most important intervention of the last courses. Moreover, ten associations and Italians NGO promoted in Rome a landmark and service centre about training called Formin’ in branches of international relationship and cooperation for a maintainable development, in the ambit of conflicts prevention and resolution, about humanitarian assistance, education of development, about human rights. Activities are made for a wide range of operators.
Some initiatives promoted by some Italian provinces in cooperation with universities contribute to training of the personnel in the social field. These courses are open to military as well as civilian personnel. In the October 2001 province of Ravenna created the workshop ”Reinforcement of democratic institutions in Balkan” in cooperation with Università di Pisa. Using learning program based on theoretical lessons, case studies and practical exercises, simulation and role play, it tried to give to participants the capability of operating in PSOs. At the end of this analysis made about all existing possibilities in training field, emerged not only the effort put in this direction by military and civilian, but also dense network of connections among institutions, universities, and Cultural centre, associations, and NGOs.
For what it may concern the deepening and the training of the personnel, we want to mention some initiative promoted by some associations as:
- Italian platform for the education to development, promoted by Documentation Centre Solidea, which collects connected initiatives of three NGOs (COSV, ICEI, Intersos) and gives deepening and meeting instruments about main themes of development through the internet.
- Balkan Observatory of Rovereto which by collecting diffusion and elaboration of information, by a web site about Balkan problem as well as meeting organisation, supports the reconstruction process of the area.
- EPSO which proposes as a landmark (reference mark) to all IO and all people interested in the peace safeguard and maintenance. Born from the meeting of civil and military experts at the end of the first Master in pK and security studies, organized by Faculty of Political Science of Roma 3 in cooperation with the School Inspectorate of the Army, realizes support activities to the PSOs, to reconstruction and emergency, through development projects of local capabilities, moreover, EPSO furnishes services and gives advice, created a data bank of web sites which contain all different aspects of PSOs.
- UniMondo, an Italian web site about world wide problems. This site, Italian reference mark of Oneworld Online, collects a large number of groups associations which operate in social field, giving visibility to their initiative. It constitute, in other words, a cultural projects for a global and lasting communication about human rights, democracy, maintainable development and environment protection. More than 150 NGOs, research centres, universities and sovranational organizations joined this site.
We are confident in saying that the elements unified in these pages are speaking about a concept of a fast evolution in collaboration between military and civilian organizations and it’s ever growing implementation in the field. Anyway we have to underline two aspects:
- resistance of a part of pacifist movement that continue to influence civil society form inside with two important consequences: on one side, they are expending critical reasoning within the movement and trying to recognize errors and fall steps in this experience of collaboration that is by some within movement considered a real ”assimilation” and annihilation within military instrument and pushes towards losing one of the most important values of the nonviolent combat which is weapons refusal; on the other side they are blocking the process of collaboration even in its positive aspects, with the high risk in late involving of civil society within international defence strategies. The most important thing if we have in mind that the whole of Europe is oriented towards professional and voluntary armed forces.
- The other important aspect is military structure intended as institutionalised legislative organization that, even while showing interest and developing rapidly disposability towards collaboration in peace keeping activity, is always very far from giving any credits and tasks to unarmed organizations named White Helmets or Civil Peace Corps in defence intended in traditional sense and also in international peace keeping.
This is way the civil military collaboration is still based on a rigid division of tasks: prevention, reconciliation, dialogue, assistance, and monitoring can be delegated to civilians when the conditions of security allow it, otherwise weapons are the only practical option and only within a military operation under all aspects. The use of unarmed forces in high risk situation was has never been experienced, if not in small rare interposition actions made by civil society. Those are experiences that have an enormous symbolic meaning, but for their nature, have a limited scientific importance. Civil society has gained an acknowledgement as an important actor before the conflict and after it, but not as an acting part in mediation and conflicts management. Even if we look on the numeric side there is a limit that may, or must not be, exceeded. The level of violence is a base from which is made a decision when an how to intervene militarily and asking all the civilians to leave the field. When, on the other hand, we are speaking about operations of peace making and not a about peace keeping we are in presence of decision that because of its violent nature, doesn’t and cannot include military and civilian collaboration and it is completely different scenario. Decision to implement collaboration between civilian and armed forces and that is between violent obligation to do something and trying to convince, we are in front of strategic and, above all, political decision. If Europe chooses to continue on this road, it will need to invest in experimenting training prevention diplomacy intelligence and not in rearming. Both movements, military and pacifist are think in this way.
Davide Berruti e Sandro Mazzi.
Davide Berruti is national coordinator of Associazione per la Pace. He is a long-experienced trainer and peace-building policies expert. Contact: email@example.com.
Sandro Mazzi is a peace researcher and trainer, of the Centro Studi Difesa Civile. He also collaborates with the University of Florence for the course ”Training methodologies on peace and nonviolence”. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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